quinta-feira, 13 de fevereiro de 2014



Alexander the Great: chronology

Alexander bust from Delos. Louvre, Paris (France). Photo Marco Prins.
Alexander, bust from Delos (Louvre)
SpringParmenion leads vanguard into Asia

SummerMurder of Artaxerxes IVaccession of Darius III

OctoberMurder of Philip (text); accession of Alexander

Nov-Dec.Alexander gains support of the Greek towns
SummerAlexander campaigns in the Balkans

Memnon's counterattack in Asia

12? Sept.Fall of Thebes (text)

Nov-Dec.Festivals at Dion and Aegae
MayAlexander lands in Asia

Early JuneBattle of the Granicus river (text)

JulyCapture of Miletus

AugustStart of the siege of Halicarnassus
WinterAlexander conquers CariaLyciaPamphylia andPhrygia

March-JuneNaval offensive of Memnon

April-JulyAlexander in Gordium (text)

JulyDeath of Memnon

Late JulyAlexander leaves Gordium

Darius leaves Babylon

July-SeptPharnabazus continues the naval offensive

SeptemberAlexander in Cilicia and falls ill (text)

OctoberParmenion sent to the Syrian gates

Alexander campaigns in West-Cilicia

c.5 Nov.Battle of Issus (text)

Dec.?Darius opens negotiations (text)
JanuaryBeginning of the siege of Tyre

SpringDisintegration of Persian fleet

JulyFall of Tyre (text)

Sept-Nov.Siege of Gaza (text)

NovemberAlexander visits Jerusalem? (text)

Alexander enters Egypt
331JanuaryAlexander in Heliopolis and Memphis

MarchAlexander visits the oracle of Ammon (text)

7 AprilAlexander founds Alexandria (text)

JuneAlexander in Phoenicia and Syria

JulyReinforcements leave Macedonia

Alexander's crosses the Euphrates

Aug-Sept.Alexander campaigns in Mesopotamia

1 Oct.Battle of Gaugamela

22 Oct.Mazaeus surrenders Babylon to Alexander
(Babylonian textLatin text)

15 Dec.
22 Dec.
Abulites surrenders Susa to Alexander
Alexander leaves Susa

20 Jan.
30 Jan.
Battle of the Persian gate
Alexander reaches Persepolis
Alexander at Persepolis (text)

JuneDarius leaves Ecbatana

c.17 JulyDeath of Darius III at ChoaraBessus king (text)

Aug-Sept.Alexander in HyrcaniaParthia and Aria

NovemberAlexander in Drangiana; plot of Philotas

Alexander in Ariaspa; murder of Parmenion
329FebruaryArmies unite in Arachosia
AprilAlexander advances to Gandara

Late MayAlexander crosses the Hindu Kush (text)

c. 1 JuneAlexander advances to the Oxus (text)

Alexander captures Bessus

Alexander advances to the Jaxartes

JulyAlexander founds Alexandria Eschat�

Revolt in Sogdia, led by Spitamenesbattle of the Jaxartes

Cavalry reorganized
WinterAlexander at Bactra

SummerCampaigns in Sogdia and Bactria

AutumnMurder of Clitus

DecemberCapture of Spitamenes
WinterAlexander in Maracanda and Nautaca

SpringCapture of the Sogdian Rock (text)

SummerArmies unite at Bactra. 

Introduction of  proskynesis (text)

Marriage to Roxane

Late SummerConspiracy of the pages; death of Callisthenes
FebruaryHephaestion advances through Gandara to Indus

Alexander campaigns in the Swat valley

Alexander takes the Aornus rock

AprilArmies unite near the Indus; advance to Taxila

MayBattle of the Hydaspes against Porus

c. 26 JuneCrossing of the Acesines

Late JulyMutiny at the Hyphasis (text)

SeptemberBeginning of fleet building

NovemberAlexander's fleet starts down the Hydaspes
JanuaryCampaign against the Mallians; Alexander wounded

FebruaryDisaster at the confluence of Acesines and Indus

AprilThe Brahman rebellion

JuneCraterus starts for Carmania

c. 15 JulyPeithon's and other forces arrive at Patala

Late AugustAlexander starts for Carmania

15 Sept.Nearchus starts on his voyage (text)

Alexander in Gedrosia (text)

DecemberPunishment of the satraps (text)

Alexander meets Craterus in Carmania
JanuaryAlexander meets Nearchus in Carmania

FebruaryAlexander in Pasargadae (text)

Death of Calanus (text)

MarchAlexander meets Nearchus in Susa

Marriages at Susa (text)

SummerAlexander's decree on the exiles (text)

AugustMutiny at Opis (text)

Veterans set off with Craterus

OctoberAlexander at Ecbatana

Late Oct.Death of Hephaestion
323WinterAlexander requests divine honors

Alexander campaigns against the Cossaeans

April-MayAlexander in Babylon

MayPreparations for campaign to Arabia

11 JuneAlexander dies (Greek textBabylonian text)
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